miércoles, 11 de abril de 2007

LA NORMALIZACIÓN DEL LENGUAJE GRÁFICO DE LA INGENIERÍA


Empecemos rescatando la siguiente cita: “A menudo el dibujo se ha llamado el lenguaje gráfico, el lenguaje de la industria u otros términos eufónicos. Como un lenguaje el dibujo debe tener un diccionario reconocido y autorizado y un método normalizado, con el fin de que se pueda ejecutar y leer con precisión invariable” (1). La normatividad en el dibujo es muy importante y tiene gran alcance. Si consideramos que podemos clasificar al dibujo o “representación gráfica” utilizada en Ingeniería en las siguientes dos áreas (ver figura 1):


● Representación gráfica usada para DESCRIBIR principalmente la forma, el tamaño, el material y los métodos de fabricación de cuerpos, objetos, elementos, etc.
● Representación gráfica usada para REPRESENTAR hechos estadísticos, ecuaciones y leyes de los fenómenos de la ingeniería.


Caeremos en la cuenta de que importantes organismos de normalización en el mundo (la estandarización americana ANSI, la normalización alemana DIN, la ISO, JIS, etc) elaboraron normas de dibujo técnico específicas para los casos que aparecen dentro el recuadro de línea punteada en la figura 1, estas normas lograron difundirse y usarse en nuestro medio debido principalmente al uso de bibliografía extranjera y a algunas publicaciones nacionales.

Ahora analicemos las aplicaciones del dibujo que aparecen fuera del recuadro de línea punteada en la fig. 1, específicamente se trata de gráficos estadísticos y de ingeniería, ningún profesional o estudiante de ingeniería negará haberlos utilizado en cierta medida (también puede afirmarse que es inexistente la bibliografía técnica que no recurra a este tipo de gráficas); en nuestro medio no es extraño ver publicaciones nacionales que presentan excelentes artículos técnicos y de investigación, pero algo estropeados por deficiencia en la presentación de sus gráficas, sería muy conveniente considerar pautas de alguna normatividad que auxilie en la preparación efectiva y legible de este tipo de ilustraciones técnicas, por ejemplo, puede consultarse para este fin el estándar ANSI Y15.1M-1979 (2).

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