sábado, 7 de julio de 2007

Punto de ablandamiento

1.- NORMAS DE CONSULTA
Las normas de consulta para la realización de este laboratorio están asignadas por

ASTM D - 36
AASHTO T –53


2.-OBJETIVO.-
El objetivo de este ensayo es la determinación del punto de ablandamiento de materiales bituminosos o anillo de bola (cemento asfáltico).
3.-FUNDAMENTO TEÓRICO.-

El ablandamiento de un material bituminoso no tiene lugar a una temperatura definida cualquiera, sino más bien, hay un cambio gradual en la consistencia debido al incremento de temperatura, entonces cualquier procedimiento que se adopte para determinar el punto en que se inicia el ablandamiento puede ser de naturaleza un tanto arbitraria.
El procedimiento de uso común en los laboratorios de materiales para carreteras se conoce como “método del anillo y la bola “y se puede aplicar a los materiales sólidos o Semi sólidos .
Punto de ablandamiento.
Como sabemos, los asfaltos, incluso los más duros, no son sólidos verdaderos y, por tanto, no puede hablarse de punto de fusión de los asfaltos en su estricto sentido físico. Al determinar la cantidad de calor necesaria para elevar la temperatura de un sólido desde una temperatura T1 inferior a su punto de fusión A otra T2, superior a este punto, es preciso sumar al producto de la diferencia T2 – T1 por el calor específico del cuerpo el “calor latente de fusión”, poducto de la masa del cuerpo por una constante característica. En el asfalto no existe este último término. Sin embargo, por conveniencias de identificación, se define en los asfaltos un punto de ablandamiento convencional que es la temperatura a la que el asfalto alcanza determinado estado de fluidez.
Existen varios ensayos para la determinación del punto de ablandamento, de los que los más usados con el anillo y bola, el de Krämer-Sarnov y el punto de gota.
Punto de ablandamiento anillo y bola.
El punto de reblandecimiento anillo y bola se determina colocando en un recipiente de agua, y a una determinada temperatura altura sobre el fondo, un anillo de latón de dimensiones fijas que se ha rellenado previamente con asfalto fundido y se ha dejado enfriar a temperatura ambiente durante cuatro horas. Sobre el tapón de asfalto se coloca una bola de acero de 9,53 mm. De diámetro, y después se calienta el baño de forma que la temperatura del agua suba a velocidad constante. Por efecto del calor del asfalto se va ablandando y la bola desciende gradualmente envuelta en una bolsa de asfalto hasta tocar el fondo del baño. La temperatura del baño en este momento se denomina punto de reblandecimiento anillo y bola del asfalto ensayado.
En este método definimos el “punto de ablandamiento” con la temperatura a la que una probeta del material en forma de disco, mantenida horizontalmente dentro de un anillo, se deforma por el peso de una bola de acero y toca una superficie situada a 2.4 cm. Cuando se calienta a una velocidad determinada en un baño de agua o glicerina.

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